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你现在的位置:首页>>群组>>非正常人类研究中心>>求翻译

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2011-10-27 19:52:46

 大家都懂的,不解释,先谢谢了;是自己翻译的哦

 

                          gine Operating Principles

Most automobile engines are internal combustion, reciprocating 4-stroke gasoline engines, but other types have been used, including the diesel, the rotary ( Wankel ) , the 2-srtoke, and stratified charge.

Reciprocating means up and down or banck and forth, It is the up and  down action of a piston in the cylinder blick, or engine block. The blick is an iron or aluminum casting that contains engine cylinders  and passges called water jackets for coolant circulation. The top of the block is covered with the cylinder head. Which forms the combustion chanber. The bottom of the block is covered with an oil pan or oil sump.

Power is produced by the linear motion of a piston in a cylinder. However, this linear motion must be changed into rotary motion to turn the wheels of cars of trucks. The piston is attached to the top of a connecting rod by a pin, called a piston pin or wrist pin. The  bottom of the connecting rod is attached to the crankshaft. The connecting rod transmits the up-and-down motion of the piston to the crankshaft, which changes it into rotary motion. The connecting rod is mounted on the crankshaft with large beaings called rod bearings. Similar bearings, called main bearings, are used to mount the crankshaft in the block. Shown in Fig. 1-1

The diameter of the cylinder is called the engine bore. Displacement and compression ratio are two frequently used engine specifications. Displacement indicates engine size, and compression ratio compares the total cylinder volume to compression chamber volume.

The term stroke is used to describe the movement of the iston within the cylinder, as well as the distance of piston travel. Depending on the type of engine the operating cycle may require either two or four strokes to complete. The 4-stroke engine is also called Otto cycle engine, in honor of the German engineer, Dr. Nikolaus Otto, who first applied the principle in 1876. In the 4-stroke engine, four strokes of the piston in the cylinder are required to complete one full operating cycle. Each stroke is named after the action it performs intake, compression, power, and exhaust in that order, shown in Fig1-2.

            1、 Intake stroke

 As the piston moves down, the vaporized mixture of fuel and air enters the cylinder through open intake valve. To obtain the maximum  filling of the cylinder the intake valve opens about 10°before t.b.c., giving 20°overlap. The inlet valve remains open until some 50°after b.d.c. to take advantage of incoming mixture.

            2、  Compression stroke

The piston turns up, the intake valve closes, the mixture is compressed within the combustion chamber, while the pressure rise to about 1Mpa, depending on various factors including the compression ratio, throttle opening and engine speed. Near the top of the stroke the mixture is ignited by a spark which bridges the gap of the spark plug.

           3、 Power stroke

 

  The expanding gases of combustion produces a rise in pressure of the gas to some 3.5Mpa, and the piston is forced down in the cylinder. The exhaust valve opens near the bottom of the stroke.

 

            4、  Exhust stroke

The piston moves back up with the exhaust valve open some 50°before b.d.d., allowing the pressure within the cylinder to fall and to reduce ‘back’pressure on the piston during the exhaust stroke, and the burned gases are pushed out to prepare for the next intake stroke.The intake valve usually opens just before the exhaust stroke.

This 4-stroke cycle is continuously repeared in every as long as the engineremains running.

A 2-stroke engine also goes through four actions to complete one operating cycle.

However, the intake and the compression actions are combined in one seroke, and the power and exhaust actions are combined in the other stroke. The term2-stroke cycle or 2-stroke is preferred to the term 2-cycle, which is really not accurate.

In automobile engines, all pistons are attached to a single crankshaft. The more cylinders an engine has, the more power strokes produced for cach revolution. This means that an 8-cylinder engine runs more smoothly bdcause the power atrokes are closer together in time and in degrees of engine rotation.

The cylinders of multi-cylinder automotive engines arranged in one of three ways.

            1、 Inline engines use a single block of cylinder.Most 4-cylinder and any 6-cylinder engines are of this design. The cylinders do not have to be vertical. They can be inclined either side.

            2、 V-type engines use two equal bands of cylinders, usually inclined 60degrees or 90degrees from the cach other. Most V-type engines have 6 or 8 cylinders, although V-4 and V-12 engines have been built.

            3、 Horizontally opposed or pancake engines have two equal banks of cylinders 180degreeas apart. These space saving engine designs are often air-cooled, and are found in the Chevrolet Carvair, Porsches, Subaus, and Volkswagens. Subaus design is liquid cooled.

Late-model Volkswagen vans use a liquid-cooled version of the air cooled VWhorizontally opposed engine.

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楼主

2011-10-27 20:15:36

浏览器自己会翻译 稍加修改就行

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离开电脑的时候,对你见到的下一个人微笑吧。 伤愈之后、明天之后,对你见到的每一个人微笑吧。
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1 楼

 
 
2011-10-28 13:55:37
我会修改的话,我自己就可以翻译了
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2011-10-27 20:16:47

 

发动机工作原理

大多数汽车的发动机是内燃机,往复四冲程汽油发动机,但其他类型已被使用,包括柴油机,旋转(汪克尔),该2-srtoke,和分层。

往复手段向上和向下或banck等,它是向上和向下的动作气缸活塞发动机块砖,或。该砖是铁或铝铸造,包括发动机气缸和passges叫做水套的冷却液循环。缸体的顶部覆盖的气缸头。构成的燃烧室。缸体的底部有一个油盘或油底壳。

权力是由直线运动的活塞在汽缸。然而,这种线性运动必须转换成旋转运动来驱动车轮,车卡车。活塞连接到顶部的连接杆通过销,称为活塞销或销。所述连杆连接到曲轴。连杆把活塞的上下往复运动的曲轴,它转变成旋转运动。连杆安装在曲轴连杆轴承的轴承被称为大。类似的轴承,主轴承,是用来安装曲轴的块。图1 - 1

气缸直径被称为发动机缸径。位移和压缩比是经常使用的发动机规格。位移表明发动机的大小,和压缩比比较气缸总容积压缩室容积。

长期中风是用来描述运动的气缸内的活塞”,以及距离活塞行程。不同类型的发动机的运行周期可能需要两年或四杆完成。在四冲程发动机也叫奥托循环发动机,在荣誉的德国工程师,博士尼古拉·奥托,谁第一个适用的原则,在1876。在四冲程发动机,四冲程汽缸中的活塞需要完成一个工作循环。每个中风是命名后的行动,它执行进气,压缩,电力,和在该命令,显示在fig1-2。

1、进气行程

当活塞下移时,汽化的燃料和空气的混合物通过进气门进入气缸。获得最大灌装汽缸的进气门打开约10°t.b.c.之前,给20°重叠。进气阀门仍然开放到50°后b.d.c.趁传入的混合物。

2、压缩行程

活塞转动,进气门关闭,混合物被压缩在燃烧室的压力,而上升到最大,取决于各种因素,包括压缩比,节气门开度和发动机转速。靠近顶部的中风混合物的火花点燃的桥梁的差距的火花塞。

3、动力冲程

燃烧膨胀的气体产生的压力上升到3.5mpa,和活塞被迫在汽缸。排气阀门打开底部附近的中风。

4、中风后的废气

活塞向后移动,与排气阀打开,50°b.d.d.之前,使气缸内的压力下降,降低back'pressure在活塞的排气冲程中,和燃烧气体喷出,准备下一个进气冲程。进气门打开前排气冲程。

这四冲程循环不断重复的每一个只要engineremains运行。

两冲程发动机也经过四次行动完成一个工作循环。

然而,进气和压缩行动结合在一个seroke,以及电力和排气行动相结合,在其他中风。该term2-stroke周期或二冲程是首选术语2周期,这真是不准确的。

汽车发动机活塞,所有连接到一个单一的曲轴。多缸发动机的动力冲程,多为革革命。这意味着,一个8缸发动机的运行更加平稳的电力atrokes因为是紧密联系在一起的时间和程度的发动机。

多缸发动机的气缸排列方式有三种。

1、直列发动机用一个气缸。大多数四缸和六缸发动机都采用这种设计。气瓶不用垂直。它们可以向任一方向倾斜。

2、V型发动机使用相等的带气瓶,通常倾向于60~90°或从对方。大多数的V型发动机有6个或8个汽缸,虽然V和12引擎已建成。

3、水平对置发动机或煎饼有2等于银行气瓶180degreeas分开。这些节省空间的设计往往是风冷发动机,并发现了雪佛兰carvair,保时捷,

 

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2 楼

 
 
2011-10-28 13:53:22
还是谢谢你,虽然是用翻译器翻译的
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